[75] Texians elected delegates to the Consultation, which created a provisional government. 1 producer of greenhouse gases", "Living, and coughing, downwind of Texas smoke stacks", "Table 1: Annual Estimates of the Population for Incorporated Places Over 100,000, Ranked by July 1, 2006 Population: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2006", "Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas Totals: 2010-2019", "The Texas Urban Triangle: Framework for Future Growth", "Distance Houston > Dallas - Air line, driving route, midpoint", "Colonias FAQ's (Frequently Asked Questions)", Impoverished border town grows from shacks into community, "Run for Party Nomination to Public Office", "County Elections – Partisan or Non-Partisan? The Texas Education Agency (TEA) administers the state's public school systems. Texas was finally annexed when the expansionist James K. Polk won the election of 1844. “Or would it be a pie ridge radiating out from that site?” No serious attempt at splitting up Texas has been made since Reconstruction, and the idea has never been tested in the courts. [369], Texas has many elite research medical centers. [92], The Compromise of 1850 set Texas's boundaries at their present form. “I actually have a bumper sticker that says that.”. [20], During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevas Filipinas ("New Philippines") and The vast majority of the Hispanic/Latino population in the state is of Mexican descent, the next two largest groups are Salvadorans and Puerto Ricans. Access our audit reports, report government fraud, register for courses we offer, peruse internal audit resources, and browse our employment opportunities. [253] In 2020, the Jewish population grew to over 176,000. The majority of Texas's population have been and remain predominantly Christian, influenced by Spanish Catholic and American Protestant colonialism and missionary work (77%). [332], The second president of the Republic of Texas, Mirabeau B. Lamar, is the Father of Texas Education. Counties are not granted home rule status; their powers are strictly defined by state law. [362], Notwithstanding the concentration of elite medical centers in the state, The Commonwealth Fund ranks the Texas healthcare system the third worst in the nation. [105] Despite not meeting reconstruction requirements, Congress resumed allowing elected Texas representatives into the federal government in 1870. [326], The Deep Ellum district within Dallas became popular during the 1920s and 1930s as the prime jazz and blues hotspot in the Southern United States. [267] To attract business, Texas has incentive programs worth $19 billion per year (2012); more than any other US state. County and state elections are partisan. Texas State Self-Service Login IMPORTANT: Keep your address, phone, and email information up to date! This is the buried crest of the Appalachian Mountains–Ouachita Mountains zone of Pennsylvanian continental collision. Texas shares borders with the states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, and the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the south and southwest, and has a coastline with the Gulf of Mexico to the southeast. Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts The Texas Comptroller’s office is the state’s chief tax collector, accountant, revenue estimator and treasurer. October 1935, Swanton, John R. Indians of the Southeastern United States (Washington: United States Government Printing Office, 1946) p. 139. [216][217], In 2015 non-Hispanic whites made up 11,505,371 (41.9%) of the population, followed by Black Americans at 3,171,043 (11.5%); other races 1,793,580 (6.5%); and Hispanics and Latinos (of any race) 10,999,120 (40.0%). Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming the Republic of Texas. “It was horrendous. Asian Americans are a sizable minority group in Texas. Texas has two courts of last resort: the Texas Supreme Court, for civil cases, and the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals. But this time Gov. Other communities with a significantly growing Asian American population is in Austin, Corpus Christi, San Antonio, and the Sharyland area next McAllen, Texas. [99] Union troops briefly occupied the state's primary port, Galveston. If they did it would be a banner representing a Sub-Corporate State of the Corporatist UNITED STATES. Of the undocumented immigrant population, 960,000 have resided in Texas from less than 5 up to 14 years. Furthermore, the Caddoans never turned to violence because of it, excepting cases of self-defense. The founders of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) used the Texas agency as one of their models for petroleum price control. “Don’t mess with Texas” started as an anti-litter message. [353], The state is home to various private institutions of higher learning—ranging from liberal arts colleges to a nationally recognized top-tier research university. [411] Trinity Metro also operates the TEXRail commuter rail line, connecting downtown Fort Worth and Northeast Tarrant County to DFW Airport. After Texas's annexation, Mexico broke diplomatic relations with the United States. [124], The state's changing demographics may result in a change in its overall political alignment, as a majority population of Black and Hispanic/Latino voters support the Democratic Party. The state's economic growth has led to urban sprawl and its associated symptoms. Texas State Alerts. Over 200,000 Indian Americans make Texas their home. [98], While far from the major battlefields of the American Civil War, Texas contributed large numbers of men and equipment to the rest of the Confederacy. Learn more about Teaching, Learning, and Working Remotely at TXST. Texas's most notable Unionist was the state Governor, Sam Houston. Both were established by the Texas Constitution and hold stakes in the Permanent University Fund. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. [235] Native Americans of non-Hispanic origin make up 0.3 percent of the population and number over 75,000 individuals. [82] Santa Anna was captured and forced to sign the Treaties of Velasco, ending the war. [432] Legal challenges to the redistricting reached the national Supreme Court in the case League of United Latin American Citizens v. Perry (2006), but the court ruled in favor of the state (and Republicans). [167] At least 12 species have been introduced and now reproduce freely in Texas. [223], In 2019, non-Hispanic whites represented 41.2% of Texas's population, reflecting a national demographic shift. These Precambrian igneous and metamorphic rocks underlie most of the state, and are exposed in three places: Llano uplift, Van Horn, and the Franklin Mountains, near El Paso. The oldest rocks in Texas date from the Mesoproterozoic and are about 1,600 million years old.[162]. [38][39] Cabeza de Vaca reported that in 1528, when the Spanish landed in the area, "half the natives died from a disease of the bowels and blamed us. [186] Causes of the state's vast greenhouse gas emissions include the state's large number of coal power plants and the state's refining and manufacturing industries. [462], Texas Motor Speedway hosts annual NASCAR Cup Series and IndyCar Series auto races since 1997. [156], The Gulf Coastal Plains region wraps around the Gulf of Mexico on the southeast section of the state. It was a short-lived victory, however, as they agreed to lay down their arms a couple of weeks later. [107], The cattle industry continued to thrive, though it gradually became less profitable. Texas is nicknamed the "Lone Star State" for its former status as an independent republic, and as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico. [117], World War II had a dramatic impact on Texas, as federal money poured in to build military bases, munitions factories, POW detention camps and Army hospitals; 750,000 young men left for service; the cities exploded with new industry; the colleges took on new roles; and hundreds of thousands of poor farmers left the fields for much better-paying war jobs, never to return to agriculture. Born in Denison, Texas, in 1890, Dwight D. Eisenhower moved to Kansas as a toddler and did not return to the Lone Star State until he was stationed there as a second lieutenant in the Army. Office of the Texas State Chemist • 445 Agronomy Road, 2114 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843-2114 (979)845 1121 • Toll-free (800)848 1121 • Fax (979)845 1389 • [email protected] ©2007-2012 Office of the Texas State Chemist Tornado Alley covers the northern section of Texas. Texas State has IT tools and services available to help faculty, staff, and students teach, work, and learn from virtually anywhere. Seemingly without actually knowing how they came by it,[according to whom?] Largest in Texas by size and passengers served, Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport (DFW) is the second-largest by area in the United States, and fourth in the world with 18,076 acres (73.15 km2). Since 1994, Texans have not elected a Democrat to a statewide office. Francisco Vázquez de Coronado describes his 1541 encounter: Two kinds of people travel around these plains with the cows; one is called Querechos and the others Teyas; they are very well built, and painted, and are enemies of each other. [139] On April 27, 2020, Governor Greg Abbott announced phase one of re-opening the economy. General José de Urrea defeated all the Texian resistance along the coast culminating in the Goliad massacre. There are more than 222,000 Salvadorans and more than 130,000 Puerto Ricans in Texas. [320][321][322] Texas was the largest U.S. state, until Alaska became a state in 1959. Breezes and Sunshine to Power Georgetown, TX", "E.ON completes world's largest wind farm in Texas", "Borland bails out of California, moves HQ to Austin, TX", "Indeed opens new North Austin office, 1,000 new jobs planned", "Texas Instruments starts construction on Dallas plant", "Dell sells Perot Systems IT services division to Dallas firm", "Rackspace to Move into Former Texas Shopping Mall … Again", "Amazon founder unveils space center plans", "Census Regions and Divisions of the United States", "A California-style migration stirs up Texas melting pot", "Can Houston move past the 'melting pot'? While the Railroad Commission of Texas originally regulated state railroads, in 2005 the state reassigned these duties to TxDOT. The county provides limited services to unincorporated areas and to some smaller incorporated areas. [338], Generally prohibited in the West at large, school corporal punishment is not unusual in the more conservative, rural areas of the state, with 28,569 public school students paddled at least one time,[339] according to government data for the 2011–2012 school year. In 1990, the Islamic population was about 140,000 with more recent figures putting the current number of Muslims between 350,000 and 400,000 as of 2012. [337], Students in Texas take the State of Texas Assessments of Academic Readiness (STAAR) in primary and secondary school. Please log in using either your Net ID or a guest account. At that time, several sudden outbreaks of violence between Caddoans and Texans started to spread. 5. [388] To fund recent growth in the state highways, Texas has 17 toll roads (see list) with several additional tollways proposed. During its period as an independent country, Texas attempted to expand south and west into what was then Mexico. [433] The state had already redistricted following the 2000 census. Abraham Lincoln’s election in 1860 as the first Republican president prompted Texas to leave the Union. The Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the south. [123] Beginning in the early 21st century, metropolitan areas including Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Austin became centers for the Texas Democratic Party in statewide and national elections as liberal policies became more accepted in urban areas. These changes helped Texas universities receive federal research funds. Although 48,000 people currently live there, it has never regained its former glory. [404], Part of the state's tradition of cowboys is derived from the massive cattle drives which its ranchers organized in the nineteenth century to drive livestock to railroads and markets in Kansas, for shipment to the East. Hidalgo County, as of 2011, has the largest number of colonias. [180], Some of the most destructive hurricanes in U.S. history have impacted Texas. [306][307] Lockheed builds the F-16 Fighting Falcon, the largest Western fighter program, and its successor, the F-35 Lightning II in Fort Worth. Municipal, school district, and special district elections are nonpartisan,[204] though the party affiliation of a candidate may be well-known. [70] They took advantage of the lack of oversight to agitate for more political freedom. What are called commissioners court and court judges are elected to serve as the administrative arm. Especially from this period on, blacks left Texas in the Great Migration to get work in the Northern United States or California and to escape the oppression of segregation. [415], The current Texas Constitution was adopted in 1876. The resulting "oil boom" transformed Texas. [399][400] The next five largest airports in the state all serve more than three million passengers annually; they include Austin-Bergstrom International Airport, William P. Hobby Airport, San Antonio International Airport, Dallas Love Field and El Paso International Airport. [57] In 1821, the Mexican War of Independence included the Texas territory, which became part of Mexico. [143][144], In the 2020 United States presidential election, Governor Abbott announced a controversial decision to limit one mail-in ballot drop box location for each county. Texas's population density is 90.5 people per square mile (34.9/km2) which is slightly higher than the average population density of the U.S. as a whole, at 80.6 people per square mile (31.1/km2). However, since the state had not been as dependent on slaves as other parts of the South, it was able to recover more quickly. Explore nine things you may not know about the Lone Star State. [451], While American football has long been considered "king" in the state, Texans enjoy a wide variety of sports.[452]. “The joke is that if there were five states, then who would get the Alamo?” Brinkman said. [94], They also brought or purchased enslaved African Americans, whose numbers tripled in the state from 1850 to 1860, from 58,000 to 182,566. Within the "Big Four" professional leagues, Texas has two NFL teams (the Dallas Cowboys and the Houston Texans), two Major League Baseball teams (the Houston Astros and the Texas Rangers), three NBA teams (the San Antonio Spurs, the Houston Rockets, and the Dallas Mavericks), and one National Hockey League team (the Dallas Stars). [86], As early as 1837, the Republic made several attempts to negotiate annexation with the United States. [281], With large universities systems coupled with initiatives like the Texas Enterprise Fund and the Texas Emerging Technology Fund, a wide array of different high tech industries have developed in Texas. [25] A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. He was born one town over from Johnson City, which his relatives had helped settle, grew up and went to college instate, and later served as a U.S. representative and U.S. senator from Texas. [274] The state also leads the nation in production of cotton[273][275] which is the number one crop grown in the state in terms of value. [50] In 1749, the Spanish peace treaty with the Lipan Apache[51] angered many tribes, including the Comanche, Tonkawa, and Hasinai. Greg Abbott over order limiting ballot drop-off locations", "Coronavirus cases in Texas are soaring again. Find out the latest on your favorite NCAAF teams on CBSSports.com. [90] On December 29, 1845, Congress admitted Texas to the U.S. as a constituent state of the Union.[91]. [10] The origin of Texas's name is from the word táyshaʼ, which means "friends" in the Caddo language.[11]. Texan", "Do You Speak American . The state experiences the most tornadoes in the United States, an average of 139 a year. [6] The 2015 Texas Population Estimate Program determined the population was 27,469,114 on July 1, 2015. [128][129][130] Johnson was the first person believed to have been killed by a robot used by U.S. law enforcement. [170], During the spring Texas wildflowers such as the state flower, the bluebonnet, line highways throughout Texas. [293] The Roscoe Wind Farm in Roscoe, Texas, is one of the world's largest wind farms with a 781.5 megawatt (MW) capacity. [330], Since 1980, San Antonio has evolved into "The Tejano Music Capital Of The World". [279], The Railroad Commission of Texas, contrary to its name, regulates the state's oil and gas industry, gas utilities, pipeline safety, safety in the liquefied petroleum gas industry, and surface coal and uranium mining. Texas has compensated by building America's largest highway and railway systems. [417], The bicameral Texas Legislature consists of the House of Representatives, with 150 members, and a Senate, with 31 members. [122], Beginning around the mid-20th century, Texas began to transform from a rural and agricultural state to one urban and industrialized. [64] Most of these early settlers who arrived with Austin and soon after were persons less than fortunate in life, as Texas was devoid of the comforts found elsewhere in Mexico and the United States during that time. Archaeologists have found that three major indigenous cultures lived in this territory, and reached their developmental peak before the first European contact. [141][142] Governor Abbott expressed regret over the swift reopening of bars during the COVID-19 pandemic in Texas. The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings, Tejas and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U.S. State of Texas. It was one of New Spain's least populated provinces. [304][305]Fort Worth hosts both Lockheed Martin's Aeronautics division and Bell Helicopter Textron. Judaism, Islam, and Buddhism were tied as the second largest religion as of 2014. Contact: Contact the governor. With mineral resources, Texas leads in creating cement, crushed stone, lime, salt, sand and gravel. [430] As Texas was always a conservative state, voters switched to the GOP, which now more closely reflected their beliefs. Six flags have flown over Texas. In early 1835, wary Texians formed Committees of Correspondence and Safety. [430][431] Commentators have also attributed the shift to Republican political consultant Karl Rove, who managed numerous political campaigns in Texas in the 1980s and 1990s. [230][231] In 2012 there were nearly 200,000 Czech Americans living in Texas, the largest number of any state.[232]. Texas State University’s Roadmap to Return for Fall 2020 charts the path for keeping our community safe and our students advancing toward their educational goals. [228] German Americans make up 11.3 percent of the population and number over 2.7 million members. [245] In some areas of the state—particularly in the large cities—Western American English and General American English, is increasingly common. [251] The following largest groups were the irreligious (18%), nothing in particular (13%), Judaism (1%), Islam (1%), Buddhism (1%) and Hinduism and other religions at less than 1 percent each. While Texas has few natural lakes, Texans have built more than a hundred artificial reservoirs. [376] The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston is a highly regarded academic institution that centers around cancer patient care, research, education and prevention. “It caught on,” Saka said. [412] The A-train commuter rail line, operated by DCTA, acts as an extension of the DART Green line into Denton County. THE STATE OF TEXAS does not have a flag. [243][244] Creole language is spoken in some parts of East Texas. Incorporated areas are part of a municipality. [179] Tornadoes in Texas generally occur in the months of April, May, and June. (1992), The Spanish Frontier in North America, Yale Western Americana Series, New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, p. 154. This makes it the deadliest natural disaster in U.S. It is the second largest U.S. state by both area (after Alaska) and population (after California). [88] The cotton price crash of the 1840s depressed the country's economy. Native Americans made up 0.5 percent of Texas's population and number over 118,000 individuals as of 2015. [402] Texas ports connect with the rest of the U.S. Atlantic seaboard with the Gulf section of the Intracoastal Waterway. [270], Texas is a "tax donor state"; in 2005, for every dollar Texans paid to the federal government in federal income taxes, the state got back about $0.94 in benefits. It was ultimately, though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits (Spindletop in particular) that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. El Paso, on the western end of the state, averages 8.7 inches (220 mm) of annual rainfall,[172] while parts of southeast Texas average as much as 64 inches (1,600 mm) per year. The region of 60,000 square miles (160,000 km2) contains most of the state's largest cities and metropolitan areas as well as 17 million people, nearly 75 percent of Texas's total population. African Americans of both Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin numbered at roughly 2.7 million individuals, increasing in 2018 to 3,908,287.[227]. Texas State Self-Service Application Status Check Enter a new application or return to complete an application. [212], In 2014, there were an estimated 1.7 million undocumented immigrants in Texas, making up 35% of the total Texas immigrant population and 6.1% of the total state population. The Dallas–Fort Worth metropolitan area is the largest in Texas. Religious Data, Demographics and Statistics: Texas", "Rough Country: How Texas Became America's Most Powerful Bible-Belt State", "Texas Online: Muslim growth adds to Texas diversity", "Jewish Population in the United States by State", Religion and public life in the southern crossroads: showdown states, "Dallas Museum Lands a Rich Trove of Islamic Art", "Gross Domestic Product by State, Annual 2019", "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects", "Fortune 500 2010: States: Texas Companies", "Fortune 500 2010: States: California Companies", "Why does Texas (Taxus) have the highest property taxes and 3rd highest sales tax? [140] Phase-two openings began on May 18, and phase three was announced on June 3. [280], Texas has known petroleum deposits of about 5 billion barrels (790,000,000 m3), which makes up about one-fourth of the known U.S. Even so, Democrats are hopeful that Texas will one day turn blue. [123] As a part of the Sun Belt, Texas experienced strong economic growth, particularly during the 1970s and early 1980s. Learn more about Teaching, Learning, and Working Remotely at TXST. [196], In contrast to the cities, unincorporated rural settlements known as colonias often lack basic infrastructure and are marked by poverty. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east. ", "40 years on from the TV series, Dallas is much more than oil barons and big hats", "Not to Be, Um, Trifled With, Texas Guards Its Slogans", "Texas-sized Hurricane Dean spins toward Yucatan", "Floating, Texas-sized garbage patch threatens Pacific marine sanctuary", "Texas-Sized Supercomputer to Break Computing Power Record", "Everything is Bigger in Texas—from New York City? [74] This launched the Texas Revolution, and over the next two months the Texians defeated all Mexican troops in the region. STAAR assess students' attainment of reading, writing, mathematics, science, and social studies skills required under Texas education standards and the No Child Left Behind Act. [68], The Anahuac Disturbances in 1832 were the first open revolt against Mexican rule, and they coincided with a revolt in Mexico against the nation's president. [164], East Texas outcrops consist of Cretaceous and Paleogene sediments which contain important deposits of Eocene lignite. The state is ranked No. During his term, the state set aside three leagues of land in each county for equipping public schools. In recent times, urban centers of the state have increased in size, containing two-thirds of the population in 2005. State by State", "Texas (USA): State, Major Cities, Towns & Places", "Profile of the Unauthorized Population – TX", "In Texas' Rio Grande Valley, a seemingly endless surge of immigrants", "Central American migrants overwhelm Border Patrol station in Texas", "Dallas is whipping Houston in population growth, Census numbers reveal", "DFW, Houston Population Increases Higher Than Any Other in U.S.", "Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States", "Population of Texas: Census 2010 and 2000 Interactive Map, Demographics, Statistics, Quick Facts", "US Census Bureau: Table QT-P10 Hispanic or Latino by Type: 2010", "Americans under age 1 now mostly minorities, but not in Ohio: Statistical Snapshot", "Texas gained almost nine Hispanic residents for every additional white resident last year", "The U.S. white majority will soon disappear forever", "On the Records: Texas One of Five "Minority-Majority" States", "American Community Survey 2018 Demographic and Housing Estimates", "Texas—ACS Demographic and Housing Estimates: 2006–2008", "Texas—Selected Social Characteristics in the United States: 2006–2008", "American Community Survey 2015 Demographic and Housing Estimates", "American Community Survey 2019 Demographic and Housing Estimates", The New Great Migration: Black Americans' Return to the South, 1965–2000, "Hispanics make up nearly half of all Texas births in 2010, U.S. says", "Majority of Texas' population growth is Hispanic", "Texas Adolescent Reproductive Health Facts", "Do You Speak American . Native Americans have lived in Texas for thousands of years, but it did not become part of a country in the modern sense until Spanish explorers arrived in 1519. [273] At $7.4 billion or 56.7 percent of Texas's annual agricultural cash receipts, beef cattle production represents the largest single segment of Texas agriculture. The boundary between New Spain and the United States was finally set at the Sabine River in 1819, at what is now the border between Texas and Louisiana. The Spanish then essentially ignored it until the 1680s, when the French established an outpost near Matagorda Bay. In 1825, Texas had about 3,500 people, with most of Mexican descent. The state also has the highest solar power potential for development in the nation. [381][382], Texans have historically had difficulties traversing Texas due to the state's large size and rough terrain. citizens. For other uses, see, Map of the United States with Texas highlighted. It may have been claimed by several different peoples, including Uto-Aztecans Athabaskans! Culture was dominant in the later 19th century exhibited many facets of a frontier territory are more than a artificial. Click here to view your personal information first high-speed rail line between Dallas and Houston have been introduced and reproduce... At 268,596 square miles, Texas experienced strong economic growth has led the nation the,! Has nine medical schools, [ according to the Consultation, which became part of the United States refused..., Baylor University, Austin College, Baylor University, University of North Texas, constituent state Texas! U.S. citizens blocked the governor fills vacancies by appointment with mineral resources Texas! Regular exercise according to the most in the Southern United States of America size rough! 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